Broken Windows Phone 8.1 Nokia Lumnia
your MS account online
Calendar is in the top left menu.
If the data you want is in a third party app it can not be retrieved from the phone.
If the note app data is backed up as part of phone backup and you had phone backup twisted on there is a chance.
With another 8.1 phone, reset it, enter your account info and select restore. the app data will restore if it is there. The note app has to still be in the store up for the app to install.